AdBlue is a 32.5% solution, obtained by dissolving high-quality urea, i.e. from technically pure urea in demineralized water. Technically pure urea is an industrially manufactured urea grade with a permitted range of exclusively biuret, ammonia and water traces, and without other substances such as anti-coagulants, and traces of contaminants such as sulphur and its compounds, chloride, nitrate or other compounds.
This is a non-toxic, colourless solution that does not burn and is completely safe for storage, handling and transport. The quality of AdBlue is guaranteed by DIN V 70070. AdBlue freezes at -11°C, and starts to degrade at temperatures above + 35°C, so it should be stored within the said temperature range. AdBlue is not a diesel fuel additive since it is stored on-board the vehicle, in a separate tank, and it is injected by means of a special device into the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine. The consumption of AdBlue, as compared to fuel consumption, ranges from 4% to 6%.
The lifespan and effectiveness of the SCR system on the vehicle depends on the quality and purity of AdBlue. To meet all the necessary requirements, the residual constituents of AdBlue retained in the catalytic converter (SCR) must be kept to an absolute minimum. This can be achieved only with the high purity Urea, intended exclusively for the production of AdBlue. The quality of AdBlue must be strictly in accordance with DIN 70070 and ISO 22241 standards, which specify the quality and purity of urea required for the SCR process in commercial vehicles.
To prevent a change in the quality of AdBlue and simultaneously to avoid high costs of vehicle maintenance, it is essential that AdBlue is stored in the original packaging intended exclusively for this product. Also, great attention needs to be paid during the product manipulation and transferring. Packaging, containers, hoses and transfer pumps must be maximally clean and shall be used exclusively for the handling of AdBlue. Even a small amount of impurities can cause severe damage to the vehicle and thus high expenses to the owner. Approved materials for packaging, transferring and storage of this product are strictly regulated by ISO 22241.
Provided that the maximum recommended storage temperature of 25 °C is maintained, AdBlue continues to meet the requirements of DIN 70070 for at least 12 months after production. Should this recommended storage temperature be exceeded, this period is reduced accordingly. In case that AdBlue is exposed to temperatures below -11°C and freezes, after thawing the product will be ready for repeated used without any deterioration in quality.
AdBlue is easily decomposed by microbes. The hazard posed by the product’s leakage or spillage to water or soil is therefore very low. Accordingly, the product has been placed in the lowest German water hazard class, WGK 1. Owing to its outstanding degradability, small quantities of spilled AdBlue can be easily washed off with large quantities of clean water, without causing further consequences upon the natural environment.
AdBlue is an aqueous solution and according to relevant European chemical legislation it is not hazardous to human health or to animals and plants. This product is not classified as a hazardous substance under the relevant materials and transport regulations. If during the operation a small amount of AdBlue comes into contact with human skin, it will be sufficient to wash the contaminated skin areas with plenty of water. The risk to human health can be virtually ruled out.
Exhaust pipes of diesel powered engines discharge the products of fuel combustion in the gaseous state (exhaust gases) containing nitrogen oxides (NOx), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). A temperature sensor, NOx sensor and pressure sensor are fitted to the exhaust pipe, while an engine speed sensor is fitted to the engine. The data collected by the sensors are routed to the control unit, which depending on the amount of exhaust gases, introduces AdBlue by means of a pump and injector. A mixture of AdBlue and exhaust gases then passes through a catalytic converter which consists of two hollow plates. One plate is made of titanium dioxide TiO2 with slight traces of other metal oxides, including tungsten oxide (WO2) for thermal protection, while the other is made of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). In the catalyst, the mixture turns from turbulent to laminar flow. At the end of the process, the exhaust gases are transformed into harmless gases comprising: nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2), steam (H2O) as well as solid particles in a reduced amount.
Exhaust gas emission standards: Euro 4 (2005), Euro 5 (2008) and Euro 6 (2013), according to which emissions of harmful substances from exhaust gases are limited, according to which the NOx emission is decreased by over 90% (according to the data obtained from World Health Organization, NOx is the cause of increased number of patients with asthma), HC compounds and carbon monoxide by 50-90% and particular matter by 30-50%.ADECO ADBLUE BLUEBASIC TECHNICAL DATA SHEET ADBLUE BLUEBASIC SAFETY DATA SHEET
Euro 4 - standard
EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) - particulate filter and the engine management system. In optimized management of the engine operation (e.g. HPI in Scania), by application of EGR technology (vapours are cooled and returned to the turbocharger = Intercooler, in order to meet limit values) in combination with a particulate filter Euro 4 standards are achievable. However, this can be achieved (currently) only for engines with 6 cylinders.
SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) - according to this technology of engine management a chemical "depot" of ammonia - AdBlue (32.5% urea solution) is added between the engine and the first catalytic chamber. This system is suitable for engines with more than 6 cylinders.
Euro 5 - standard
SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology - according to the current level of development this technology is the only way to meet the limit values, and in the future even the lower values stipulated by Euro 5.
EURO 6 – standard
It was introduced in 2013. In addition to the EGR and SCR systems, DPF system (diesel particulate filter) was also introduced with the aim to trap and prevent the emission of fine particulate matter such as soot, hydrocarbons and sulphate ash, which occur as products of fuel combustion.
All leading, well-known manufacturers started using SCR technology. Since the beginning of 2006 MAN and Scania have simultaneously offered both EGR (for achieving Euro 4 levels) and SCR technologies (for achieving Euro 5 standard). The main reason for favouring SCR technology is a short time span between October 2005 (Euro 4) and (only three years after) October 2008, when Euro 5 was adopted.
Benefits of SCR technology:
- Up to 5% reduction in diesel fuel consumption in comparison with alternative technological solutions for the optimization of the engine operation.
− Technology is applicable to Euro 4 and Euro 5.
− Easy to maintain, considering that the presence of a particulate filter is not necessary.
Manufacturers of SCR-equipped trucks: Mercedes-Benz, Iveco, Volvo, Renault, DAF, all types of MAN, Scania, all engines with more than 6 cylinders (since 2005) and alternative solutions for all engines since 2006.
The use of SCR-equipped engines in the agricultural machinery started at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of this century.
Besides the fact that SCR-equipped engines are generating less air pollution (lower NOx emissions), the advantages of introducing SCR-equipped engines (TIER 3A) also include: 1. lower fuel consumption, 2. lower heat loss, 3. lower content of fine particles and smoke in exhaust streams, 4. less contaminated engine oil with residue, which extends the replacement interval of engine oil. Global manufacturers of SCR-equipped tractors are: 1. McCormick type X70, 2. Massey Ferguson serie 8600, 3. Valtra model T 133; T 153; T 163; T 173; T 193, 4. Fendt 700 Vario, 5. Case serie QUADTRAC; 6. John Deere serie 6R; 7. Class AXION 800 (200-270 hp) 8. Deutz 6 series (118-193 hp)
The Association of Automobile Industry of Germany (Verband der Automobilindustrie), for the purpose of controlling and introducing quality standards for the products used in the automotive industry, the use, storage, handling and disposal of which can cause risks to population and the environment, introduced the regulations which regulate the manner in which these products are manufactured (materials and production technology), labelled, tested, handled, stored, transported, used and disposed in order to be least harmful for the human health and the environment.
The list has been made on the basis of legislation related to the protection of the human health and environment.
These standards cover: 1. carcinogens, 2. teratogens, 3. mutagens, 4. sensitizers of toxic and highly toxic substances. Standards ISO 22241 and DIN V 70070 stipulate the regulations according to which the NOx reducing agents, i.e. AUS 32 agents (agents based on urea diluted in water) are produced, stored, handled and used. Each manufacturer of these agents, meeting the aforementioned standards shall be granted the VDA (Verband de Automobilindustrie) licence.
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